Anti-microbial Activity and Phytochemistry of Ginger

Anti-biotic drug resistant has become one of the major problems affecting the society at large. Ginger (Zingiber officiale Rosscoe) from the family Zingiberaceae family has been used for medicinal purposes to manage many ailments and disease conditions due its anti- microbial activity against many microbial pathogens. This research work was conducted to find out the anti-microbial activity of ginger extracted in different organic solvents and tested against two bacterial pathogens. The solvents were hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and DCM/Methanol ratio 1:1. All the crude extracts of ginger rhizome showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus shown by their inhibition diameters. Hexane, DCM and DCM/Methanol extracts had the following inhibition diameters respectively; 10 mm, 14 mm and 19 mm On the contrary all the extracts had no control over E. Coli. Purified extracts using column chromatography gave positive and enhanced antimicrobial activity against the two bacteria. Hexane, DCM and DCM/Methanol (MeOH) extracts respectively had the following inhibition diameter against S.A; 12.2 mm, 13.8 mm and 17.1 mm. Against E. Coli they were; 7 mm, 15 mm and 112.1 mm.

Phytochemistry of ginger was also conducted in this study. Gas chromatography – mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to identify the compounds present in the different samples extracted using different solvents. For the sample extracted using dichlomethane (DCM) the following were the major compounds present: Zingiberone, [6]-gingerol, α-Bisabolol, cis-Z-α-Bisabolene epoxide, [6]-paradol, (-)-Zingiberene and β-sesquiphellandre. Hexane extract had the following major compounds: (-)-Zingiberene, cis-α-Bisabolene and [6]-gingerol. In DCM/Methanol 1:1 ratio extract the following were the major compounds: [6]-paradol, [6]-gingerol and α-Bisabolene.

Ginger is usually used as a flavor in many foods and drinks and therefore this would be a very efficient way of controlling some disease causing pathogens like bacteria. This is because ginger has proven to bioactive against some of these pathogens.