Assessment of Borehole and Shallow Well Water Quality from Nakuru Area

Kenya is currently considered a water scarce country with less than 648m3 water supply/ person per capital compared to Global bench mark 1000m3/ person per year. Water quality possesses an equally great challenge as water quantity. Ground water is the water which accumulates underground. Groundwater is preferred over the surface water since it’s easier to treat and  less polluted.


The main objective of this study was to determine the drinking water quality from Nakuru area. Nakuru is the fourth largest town in Kenya located 160 kilometers northwest of Nairobi. The main sources of water are shallow wells, boreholes and Njoro River. Specifically the project investigated the physio-chemical parameters (pH, TDS, TSS, TS and conductivity); heavy metal (Pb, Mn, Cd, Cr) and microbial (E. coli and coliforms). Water samples were collected from eight different sites and characterized following different standard methods.


The results showed variation in the concentration across different parameters and different sources. The mean TDS varied between (2169.5-169.2mg/l), conductivity (1082.5-84.66), pH (7.8-8.55), TSS (27.5-93.5), TS (132.08-134.23), micro-bio activity (E.Coli (0-232.5), coliform (0-110)), lead (0.00-5.65ppm).


Most parameters were above the drinking water guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO)and the National Environment Management Authority of Kenya (NEMA) except for pH as follows; TDS>500mg/l ,conductivity>5.8us/cm , Pd>0.01,total coliforms>0.00mg/l. The results showed that ground water is not safe for human consumption and proper treatment has to be done before usage.

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