Water quality characterization in Naivasha Town

Provision of good quality household drinking water is an important means of improving public health in rural communities especially in Africa; and is the rationale behind protecting drinking water sources and promoting healthy practices at and around such sources. To examine different parameters on quality of drinking water from five sources from Naivasha town

Water samples from five water sources comprising borehole water, river, shallow well, lake and municipal water were assessed. Physico-chemical, total coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria, heavy metals and fluorides were analysed in water sampled. Results of the tests were compared with the prescribed World Health Organization desirable limits.

The results revealed variations in the concentration across different parameters and different parameters and different sources. The mean pH varied between 7.20-7.92,conductivity (98.0-1406.7µs/cm),TDS(49.0-704.7mg/L),TSS(0.0113-0.0433mg/L),Dissolved oxygen(15.5-19.74mg/L),E.coli(0-1.33cfu/ml),coliform(1.33-5cfu/ml) ;fluorine(1.15-7mg/F),lead(0.04-0.28ppm),cadmium(˂ 0.0006ppm),manganese(˂0.003),chromium(˂0.005ppm). Most of parameters investigated were below the drinking  water guidelines  set by World Health Organization and the National Environment Management Authority of Kenya(NEMA),except for lead for all sites which was quite high(˃0.01ppm),fluorides for all sites were high (˃1.15) except for river Malewa (1.15mg/F).

This shows that Naivasha town is experiencing severe environmental problems as a result of severe from agricultural effluents and urban water runoff, uncontrolled water abstraction, improper land use practices in the catchment area.

Key words: physio-chemical parameters, heavy metals, fluorides, microbial activity

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