Flouride Levels and Deflouridation Method in Selected Boreholes in Athiriver And other Selected Water Parameters







A systematic study has been carried out to explore water quality in selected bore holes in Athi River. The samples were taken from five different boreholes Makandara, Devki, Njuguini, Cleverland and Ngeitu. The boreholes were at least three kilometers apart. Athi River is a town outside Nairobi in Eastern province Machakos district .It is relatively industrialized including a major cement factory run by Athi River mining. The town is also a growing residential area due to its proximity to the capital. The samples taken were analyzed for physio-chemical parameters such as chlorides, total dissolved solids. Total suspended solids, nitrate, turbidity and colour .The results obtained were tabulated.


Win lab electrical conductivity meter was used to determine some of the physio-chemical parameters like pH, conductivity, TDS, salinity, temperature. Turbidometer was used to determine the turbidity and colour. Win lab photometer was used to determine some chemical parameters like: chloride, nitrate and sulphate. Other chemical parameters like Total hardness and Total alkalinity were determined quantitatively by titration. In Total hardness one indicator was used which was eriochrome black T while in Total alkalinity two indicators were used which were methyl orange and phenolpthalein. To determine fluoride level UV VIS spectrometer was used. Sodium fluoride standards were prepared in concentrations of 0.0,0.2,0.4,0.8,1.2,1.6,2.0 respectively, the standards were then run on the spectrometer and absorbance determined. The results was used to plot a calibration curve which was later used to evaluate samples concentrations. Defluoridation were carried to all samples because they exceed the W.H.O .requirement on maximum level of fluoride (1.5mg/l). Defluoridation was done using rock alum and sodium carbonate. Defluoridation involved the complexation of poly hydroxyl results obtained are as follows: 1 pH: makandara (8.86), ngeitu (9.06), njuguini (8.3), devki (8.38), Cleveland (8.8)2 Conductivity[mg/l]: makandara (940), ngeitu(900), njuguini(615), devki (1000), cleverland (695) 3 TDS[mg/l]: makandara (658), ngeitu (630), njuguini (430.5), devki(700), cleverland (486.5) 4 TSS[mg/l]: makandara (500), ngeitu (210), njuguini (90), devki (404), cleverland (320). 5 Chloride [mg/l]: makandara (172), ngeitu (160), njuguini (134), devki (184), cleverland (138) 6 Nitrate [mg/l]: makandara (3), ngeitu (10.2), njuguini (6), devki (1.3), cleverland (5.5). 7 Sulphate [mg/l]: makandara (486), ngeitu (34), njuguini (39), Devki(619), cleverland (609) 8 Turbidity (N.T.U): makandara (0.32), ngeitu (1.97), njuguini (1.33), devki(0.87), cleverland(2.67) 9 Alkalinity[mg/l]: makandara(93.09), ngeitu(191.66), njuguini (82.14), devki (101.31), cleverland (145.11) 10 Hardness[mg/l]: makandara (14.634), ngeitu(12.195), njuguini (2.439), devki (51.219), cleverland (9.756). 11 Fluoride[mg/l]: makandara (2.12), ngeitu (1.957), njuguini (2.066), devki (2.02), cleverland (1.674).12 Fluoride after defluoridation [mg/l]: makandara (1.498), ngeitu (1.13), njuguini (1.401), devki (1.36), cleverland (0.851)

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