Determination of Fluoride Levels and other Physio-Chemical Parameters in some Selected Borehole Waters in Kajiado North District

 

 

 

 

 

 

Water is a common chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of life. Ingestion of contaminated water is detrimental to health since it causes infectious diseases. Some sources of water include surface and ground waters. Ground water was considered for this research project where six boreholes namely A (Oloshoibor), B (Ngong), C (Sakuda’s), D (Enaikishomi), E (Ornga’rua) and F (Olokeri) were the sources of water analysed.

 

The aim of this project was to determine the levels of fluorides, to determine the physiochemical parameters like pH, temperature, conductivity, TDS, salinity, turbidity, hardness and anions like Chlorides, Sulphates and Nitrates.

 

A win lab conductivity meter was used to determine conductivity, TDS, salinity, and temperature. pH meter was used to measure the ph. Turbidometer was used to measure turbidity. Titrimetric method was used to determine total hardness of the samples. A win lab photometer was used to determine the concentration of chlorides, sulphate, and Nitrates. UV –visible spectrophotometer was used to determine the levels of fluorides at wavelength of 570nm.

 

The results for the different physiochemical parameters analysed were as follows from sample A, B, C, D, E and F respectively PH ( 7.60, 9.49, 7.56, 7.99, 7.63, 8.19 ). Temperature oC (25.5, 25.5, 25.5, 25.5, 25.5,25.5). Conductivity μs/cm (572, 555, 541, 795, 607, 861). TDS ppm (400.4, 388.5, 378.7, 556.5, 424.9, 602.7). salinity ppm (286, 277.5, 270.5, 397.5, 303.5, 430.5). Turbidity, NTU (7.22, 0.42, 5.14, 6.65, 2.73, 15.6). Total hardness mg/l (151.22, 4.88, 107.32, 180.49, 60.98, 104.88). Chlorides mg/l (53, 64, 68, 70, 44, 23 ). Sulphates mg/l ( 11.7, 81, 27, 158, 40, 35). Nitrates mg/l (3.1, 1.4, 4.2, 4.8, 4.8, 1.6 ). Fluorides ppm ( 0.1, 0.3, 0.1, 0.7, 0.5, 0.8).

 

The obtained were compared with international drinking water guidelines and most of them were within the allowable limits for drinking water except for sample B (Ngong) the PH was above the WHO guidelines ( 6.5-8.5) also turbidity of samples A, D, and F exceeded the allowable limits WHO (5.0 NTU)

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