Determination of Fluoride Levels and other Physio-Chemical Paramaters from Selected Water Sources in Butula District




Water is a common chemical substance that is fundamental for the survival of all known forms of life. Ingestion of contaminated water is damaging to health and causes infectious diseases. Various sources of water include surface and ground waters. Ground water, from four boreholes A (Kwa Okwach), B (Burinda), C (Bujumba), D (Shiundu); two springs E (Shiundu Spring), F (Burinda Spring) and  surface water from  G (Shiundu Tank). Water samples from these sources were analysed.


The aim of this project was to determine the levels of fluorides, and physiochemical parameters like pH, conductivity, TDS, Salinity, turbidity, hardness, Chlorides, Sulphates and Nitrates. UV – spectrophotometer was used to determine the levels of fluorides at a wavelength of 570nm. A win lab photometer was used to determine the concentration of chlorides, sulphates and nitrates. A pH meter was used to determine pH, and a turbidometer was used to measure turbidity. TDS was obtained by heating the sample to dryness and obtaining the difference from the already weighed empty beaker, and after heating. From TDS, conductivity and salinity were attained.


The results for the different physiochemical parameters analysed were as follows from sample A, B, C, D, E, F and G respectively .Fluorides mg/L (1.1,0.7, 0.0, 0.3, 0.9, 0.4, 0.4) pH (6.4, 6.4, 6.7, 5.9, 6.0, 6.1, 5.8); Conductivity µs/cm  (457.14, 285.71, 142.86, 1300, 157.14, 28.75, 414.29);  Salinity ppm (228.57, 142.86, 71.43, 650, 78.57, 14.29, 207.15) ; TDS ppm(320, 200, 100, 910, 110, 20, 290);Turbidity, NTU (-0.345, -0.66, -0.72, 7.77, 0.325, 4.07, 0.63); Total hardness mg/l (29.27, 73.17, 121.95, 73.17, 53.66, 87.80, 29.27); Chlorides (0.0, 2.3, 0.0, 3.2, 0.0, 0.0, 2.8); Nitrates mg/l  (2.7, 0.9, 1.9, 1.9, 3.8, 0.6, 5.3) and sulphates mg/l (1.3, 1.3, 0.0, 1.3, 6.5, 2.6, 0.0).


The obtained values were compared with international drinking water guidelines and it was found that most of them were within the allowable limits for drinking water. Except for the pH from the following boreholes Kwa Okwach, Burinda, Shiundu and Shiundu tank.

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