Charcoal and Emissions from the Micro-Gasifier Stove



In developing countries biomass represents about 80% of the energy used for cooking. Unfortunately, this biomass is inefficiently utilized by use of inefficient stoves that waste a lot of energy. This report contains information on how a micro-gasifier stove can utilize firewood to produce syngas that can burn at the same time producing charcoal. The emissions from the stove are also determined.


The main aim of the experiments was to find out how a micro-gasifier converts firewood into charcoal. Besides the stove was monitored to find out how long the syngas produced can burn, the flame temperature, emissions from the stove, the conversion percentage of firewood to charcoal, the quality of charcoal produced and information on  the micro-gasifier design. Some of the techniques used include; the water boiling test, use of the indoor air pollution equipment i.e. the CO meter and the smoke detectors, bomb calorimeter method and photography.


The micro-gasifier was found to have a good burn time of 1hr 15 minutes. It has a good firewood to charcoal conversion of 21.32%. The flame produced has a temperature of 750 degrees Celsius. It has CO emissions <10 ppm and smoke emissions <20 ppm. It has a good thermal efficiency (21%), burning rate (33.7 g/min) and firepower (8046.5 watts).The micro-gasifier is a Top Lit up Draft gasifying stove. This stove is very efficient in terms of biomass utilization. This is because it uses 2kg of firewood to cook for 1hr 15 min and gives charcoal that can be used with the Kenya Ceramic Jiko. The conversion percentage of 21% was higher than that of the traditional kiln which is usually 10% besides the quality of charcoal produced was of high quality. The flames produced boiled water within 13 minutes and the emissions produced are minimal. The produced flames are difficult to control since the gasifier has no mechanism for doing so.


KEYWORDS (Burn time, Charcoal, emissions, indoor air pollution)

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