Phytochemical Investigation of the roots of Schizozygia caffaeoides for Antimicrobial Principles




The use of medicinal herbs in the treatment of infections is an age-old practice. Many infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and Candida infection, in this era of HIV-AIDS are increasingly becoming difficult to treat because of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. Therefore, the need to develop new and effective antimicrobial agent cannot be overemphasized. Plants, especially those used in traditional medicine can provide lead structures.  Schizozygia coffaeoidies is among the plants used traditionally to cure microbial infections.


In an effort made to address the problem of microbial infections and its associated complications, the dried and ground roots of S. coffaeoides was extracted with ethyl acetate. The crude extract was tested for antimicrobial activity and   showed activity against the fungal species Cryptococcus neoformans and Asperginus niger. The crude extract was subjected to silica gel column chromatography and resulted in the isolation of five compounds. One of this is a new compound and characterized as 3-oxo-14,15-epoxyschizozygine (3). The remaining compounds were identified as stigmasterol(1), schizozygine(2), 6,7-dehydro-19-hydroxyschizozygine(4), and the anthraquinone cassianin (5). This appears to be the first report on the occurrence of anthraquinone dimmer in the family Apocynacea. The structure of these compounds was elucidated using spectroscopic methods including, 1H and 13C NMR, COSY, NOESY, HMBC and HMQC. Some of the compounds showed antimicrobial activity against three fungi; Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans and Asperginus niger inhibition at a concentration of 0.01 mg/disc.






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